- Dampness is the presence of magnetic or hygroscopic moisture.
- The building should remain dry or free from water traveling through walls, roofs, and floors.
- Water gives unhygienic conditions apart from a reduction in the strength of structural components.
- Provision of damp proof courses prevents entry of moisture in the building.
Causes Of Dampness
Moisture Rising The Walls From Ground.
- All structures are founded on soils
- If the soil is pervious, moisture always travels through it. This happens when bathroom waterproofing services in Bangalore are not done properly.
- Even in impervious soil, a lot of soil moisture may be present.
- This moisture rises into the wall & floor through capillary action.
- Groundwater rise also results in moisture entry into the building through walls.
Rain travel through wall tops:
- If the wall tops are not adequately protected from rain penetration, the rain will enter the wall & will travel down.
- Leaking roofs will also permit water to enter
Rain beating against external walls :
- Heavy showers of rain may beat against the outer faces of walls & if the walls are not adequately treated, moisture will enter the wall causing dampness in the interior.
- If balconies and chajja projections do not have a proper slope, water will accumulate on these & will enter the walls through their junctions.
- Moisture will ultimately damage the interior paints of walls.
- Water on the walls, floors & ceilings is deposited due to the condensation of ambient moisture.
- This moisture causes dampness.
EFFECTS OF DAMPNESS
Following are ill effects of the entry of dampness:
- Dampness gives rise to the breeding of mosquitoes & creates unhealthy conditions.
- Moisture movement on the wall creates unsightly patches of moisture
- It can cause plaster softening & crumbling.
- Wall decoration or paint is damaged.
- The continuous presence of water in the wall may cause fluorescence, which disintegrates bricks, stones, tiles, etc.
- Flooring gets loosened due to a reduction in adhesion when water enters through the floor.
- Timber fittings such as doors, Almira windows, etc., that come into contact with damp walls, because of warping, wet feet deteriorate.
- Electrical fittings get declined, giving rise to leakage of electricity & danger of short shirtings.
- Floor coverings are damaged.
- Dampness promotes & accelerated the growth of termites.
- Dampness breeds germs of disease like tuberculosis, neuralgia, rheumatism.
- Rusting & corrosion of metal fittings is caused by moisture.
METHODS OF DAMP PROOFING
- Use of damp proofing course (DPC): Membrane wet proofing.
- Integral Damp Proofing
- Surface Treatment
- Cavity wall construction
- Pressure Guniting
Membrane Damp Proofing (Use of DPC)
- In this method, a water repellent membrane or damp proof course (DPC) between the source of dampness and part of the building adjacent to it is provided. There are website designing in Pune for membrane damp proofing.
- DPC may be bitumen, mastic asphalt, bituminous felts, plastic sheet, metal sheets, cement concrete.
- On floors, partitions, etc., DPC may be supported horizontally or vertically.
When supplying DPC, the following basic rules should be applied:
- DPC should cover the full thickness of the wall.
- Mortar bed supporting DPC should be leveled & even and should be free from projections so that DPC is not damaged.
- At junctions & corners of walls, the horizontal DPC (on the floor) should be laid continuously.
- A cement concrete fillet of a 7.5 cm radius should be given at the junction if a horizontal DPC is continued to a vertical face.
- The DPC on the wall surface should not be left exposed. Otherwise, during completion, it can get hurt.
INTEGRAL DAMP PROOFING
This consists of adding certain waterproofing compounds of materials to the concrete mix so that it becomes impermeable. These waterproofing compounds may be in three forms:
(1)Compounds made of chalk, earth fullers, which can fill concrete voids under the concept of mechanical action.
(2)Compounds like alkaline silicates, aluminum sulfate, calcium chlorides, etc., react chemically with the concrete to produce waterproof concrete.
(3)Compounds work on the water repulsion principle. Like soap, petroleum oils, fatty acid compounds such as Stearates of calcium, sodium, ammonia, etc. When they are mixed with concrete become water repellant.
(4)Commercially available combinations like Pueblo, Permo, Silka, etc.
- The surface treatment consists of applying a layer of water-repellant substances on the surface through which moisture enters.
- The use of metallic soaps with water repellants such as Calcium & Aluminium Oletes and Stearates is effective against infiltration by rainwater.
- Pointing & plastering of the exposed surfaces must be done carefully using waterproofing agents like Sodium or Potassium silicates, Aluminium or Zinc sulfates, Barium hydroxide, and magnesium sulfate.
- The surface treatment is successful when moisture is superficial.
- Cavity Wall Construction
- In this damp prevention process, an exterior skin wall protects the main wall of the house, leaving a cavity between the two.
- This consists of depositing by pressure on the wall’s exposed soil, tubing, and rich cement mortar coating.
- Cement mortar is 1:3 cement sand mix.
- Mortar is shot on a clean surface with a cement gun under 2 to 3 kg/cm2 pressure.
- Computer nozzles are stored at a distance of about 75 to 90 cm from the wall.
- Curing of mortar is done for ten days.
- Pressure Grouting.
- In this method, cement grout is filled in cracks, voids in the building’s structure by pressure.
- The Foundation of the building is subjected to grouting to make water-penetration resistant.
- This method is useful to control the entry of groundwater through foundations.
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