Neuromyelitis

Neuromyelitis Optica: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

People who exhibit symptoms of neuromyelitis Optica must seek help from the best neurologist in Lahore. An early diagnosis helps avoid complications, such as blindness, bowel dysfunction, and spasm. The specialist conducts various tests to diagnose the disease and its severity. Additionally, the tests will help identify the cause of the disease.

Neuromyelitis Optica is a disease in which the functioning of the central nervous system is compromised. The condition affects the optic nerve leading to eyesight-related problems. Additionally, it affects the spinal cord functioning, which may lead to paralysis and painful spasms. Women are more prone to develop the condition; however, the treatment options help the patient manage the symptoms and reduce the chances of associated complications.

The symptoms of Neuromyelitis Optica are:

  • The person may feel that they are constantly losing their eyesight.
  • The patient experiences constant loss of spinal cord functioning.
  • The patient experiences muscle weakness and remains tired for most of the time.
  • With time, the person has no bladder control.
  • The person suffers from constant hiccups and vomiting.
  • The patient suffers from a paralysis attack. 

Known Causes of Neuromyelitis Optica

The immune system attacks the CNS cells. Individuals with an autoimmune disease are at a higher risk of developing the condition. Additionally, an infection can cause the person to suffer from Neuromyelitis Optica as a complication.

Preventive Measures

The preventive measures include:

  • The person must take medications for an infection or allergic reaction to avoid correlated complications.
  • Everyone must maintain their body weight and engage in physical activities to reduce the chances of developing the condition.
  • Individuals with autoimmune diseases must keep in touch with a specialist to know about the latest treatment and avoid complications.

Complications Associated with Neuromyelitis Optica

The complications of Neuromyelitis Optica are:

  • The functioning of the optic nerve is affected. It may lead to vision-related problems or complete blindness.
  • The person may have muscle weakness or hindered functioning of the lower extremities. Without proper treatment, the patient may suffer from paralysis of the arms or legs.
  • The patient may experience recurrent and painful spasms.
  • The condition may lead to bowel dysfunction.
  • In severe cases, it can lead to coma.
  • Due to hindered functioning, the person may suffer from mental disorders such as depression.

Tests to Diagnose Neuromyelitis Optica

The tests that assist in diagnosing the condition are:

  • The neurological assessment helps evaluate the severity of the condition. The specialist checks the body movement, speech, memory, and vision. It allows the doctor to identify the affected brain region.
  • The imaging tests help get a detailed picture of the brain to rule out the chances of brain swelling that may be causing the person to suffer from the symptoms.
  • The MOG-IgG antibody test helps confirm that the symptoms correlate with neuromyelitis Optica, not with other inflammatory diseases.
  • The CSF Oligoclonal band test determines if the symptoms are related to multiple Sclerosis or neuromyelitis Optica.

Medications and Therapy to Treat Neuromyelitis Optica

The medications and therapy that are proven beneficial in reversing the symptoms and preventing future attacks are:

  • Use of Corticosteroids: The medication helps the person cope with the symptoms. Additionally, they are proven beneficial in reversing the symptoms.
  • Use of Immunosuppressants: The medications help suppress the immune response. It helps to reduce the chances of future attacks.
  • Plasmapheresis: It allows separating the plasma from the body for removing the antibodies causing the symptoms.

Dietary Guideline for the Patient with Neuromyelitis Optica

The nutritional guideline includes:

  • The patient must consume omega-3 food, lean meat, and green vegetables.
  • The patient must avoid processed food, sugary drinks, caffeine, and related products.

People who exhibit correlating symptoms must consult a neurologist in Karachi for an early diagnosis. It will help opt for the most effective treatment, which will enhance the quality of life and reduce the chances of complications.

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